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by Enrico Ferri
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By the Italian criminologist and socialist. He was born in Lombardy in 1856, and worked first as a lecturer and later as a professor of Criminal law, having spent time as a student of Cesare Lombroso. While Lombroso researched anthropological criminology, Ferri focused more on social and economic influences on the criminal and crime rates. Ferri was the author of Criminal Sociology in 1884, Socialism and Modern Science (Darwin, Spencer, Marx) in 1900, and The Positive School of Criminology in 1906. His work served as the basis for Argentina's penal code of 1921. His arguments for crime prevention over punishment were eventually rejected by Italian dictator Benito Mussolini after his rise to power. He was one of the founders of modern criminology.
From the consideration that human actions, whether honest or dishonest, social or anti-social, are always the outcome of a man's physio-psychical organism, and of the physical and social atmosphere which surrounds him, I have drawn attention to the anthropological or individual factors of crime, the physical factors, and the social factors.
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