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Birds differs from all other fifth-century plays of Aristophanes that survive in having no strong and obvious connection with a topical question of public interest, whether political, literary-theatrical or intellectual-educational. It has, in its own way, plenty of topical and satirical content; in particular as the city of Cuckooville begins to take shape, it proves in many ways to be a replica of Athens, and is soon visited by many of the less desirable elements of the Athenian population. But satire is kept firmly subordinate to fantasy; and as fantasy Birds has no rival in what we possess of Greek literature, until we reach Lucian nearly six centuries later. First published in 1987, current edition 1992. Parallel Greek text and English translation.
Text: Greek, English
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