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Henry Howard Earl Of Surrey

by Edwin Casady

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Text extracted from opening pages of book: HENRY HOWAKP, EARL OF SURREY BY EDWIN CASADY NEW YORK THE MODERN LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA MCMXXXVIII Copyright, 1938, by THE MODERN LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA Composed, Printed and Bound by Gewge Bant* Publishing Companj f*\ Menasbt, Wiscouan To Professor Gerald Sanders PREFACE The object of this study of Surrey, which was undertaken at the suggestion of Professor Gerald Sanders, is to reinterpret the character of the man and of his poetry. In it I have attempted to distinguish clearly among the facts, the conjectures, and the fictions offered by former studies, to integrate all existing ma terial on the subject, and to present the man and the poet from the point of view made possible by our increasing knowledge of the first half of the sixteenth century. Its most valuable contribution to scholarship may seem to be the negative one of bringing to attention how completely the common conception of Surrey derives from questionable con jectures and fallacious traditions. In my opinion, however, its value lies in the evidence advanced that Surrey was not a fol ish prowde boye, in the explanation offered of the influences which caused Surrey to act as he did, and in the accounts given of customs, manners, and practices in sixteenth-century Eng land. In any such study to paraphrase a statement by Mr. M. R. Ridley in his study of Keats 1 it is ridiculous to be dogmatic; the only person who can know how an individual's mind works is the individual himself, and even he is probably none too clear about it. On the other hand, perpetual qualification becomes tedious. I hope therefore that anyone who reads this study will realize that any blunt statement concerning a man's motives or mental reactions should be read with a tacit qualification of probably or one may conjecture, which in the interest of brevity and clarity is usually suppressed or placed in a footnote. Moreover, hi the interest of brevity and clarity, I have abbre viated many references, 2 modernized the punctuation of all quotations, conventionalized the spellings of proper names where necessary to prevent ambiguity, and changed all dates to New Style. 1 Keats' Craftmanship ( Oxford, 1933), pp. 106-107. 2 A table of bibliographical abbreviations is given on pp. xi-xii. VU1 PREFACE To the Rhodes Trustees I am deeply grateful for the scholar ship which enabled me to examine source materials in England relating to Surrey and to present, in 1931, a dissertation on Surrey to Oxford University. I must acknowledge, however, that further study has led me to question the commonly ac cepted interpretations of Surrey's character and actions, many of which I repeated in my Oxford dissertation, and to formulate the reinterpretation offered in the following pages. Probably only those who have themselves made a study of sixteenth-century England will appreciate fully the extent to which I am indebted to the research of both past and present scholars. Everyone will, of course, recognize my indebtedness to Professor A. F. Pollard's published work; I am also indebted to Professor Pollard for the privilege of attending his seminar in problems of Tudor research and for many suggestions of possible sources of information pertaining to Surrey. I have found more help in other studies relating to Surrey than I am able to acknowledge specifically; to all of them am I indebted, and especially to the studies of George Frederick Nott and of Edmund Bapst. Anyone who examines carefully Nott's work on Surrey must admire, even marvel at, the comprehensiveness of the material which he succeeded in bringing together without the help of modern critical apparatus. To Professor Hoyt H. Hudson and to Professor Leicester Bradner I am grateful for reading my manuscript in progress and giving me much valu able advice. To the officials of the Bodleian Library, the British Museum, the Public Record Office, and the Huntington Library I am grateful for their unfaili



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