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Designing Effective Database Systems

by Rebecca M. Riordan

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About Book

Book Description

Even though most developers spend much of their programming time workingwith databases, many of them have never had any focused training on how todesign and build a database that works smoothly and is easy to use. RebeccaRiordan is a well-known authority on database design. Her intention in thisbook is to give the reader the knowledge needed to take a messy, complex, realworldsituation and turn it into an effective database design. This isn't a "howto program" book. While there are a few coding examples, even people whohave never programmed before should be able to follow them. Instead thebook is full of practical examples taken from real-world situations, andexplained without the use of code. The sample databases used are Access andMicrosoft SQL Server, but the lessons are applicable to any database program.This book is an updated edition of Designing Relational Database Systems ,073560634X, Microsoft Press, which was very highly regarded but is now outof print.

From the Back Cover

“Riordan covers core skills for any developer—database design and development—in a perfect amount of detail. This book should be on every professional developer’s reading list.”

—Duncan Mackenzie, developer, Microsoft (MSDN)“Designing a database is not a trivial subject. Riordan brings experience and clear explanations to a fundamental part of software development.”

—Patrick Birch, database and technical writing consultant“If you buy only one book on database design, make it this one. Riordan has a talent for explaining technical issues in simple language, without over simplifying.”

—Brendan Reynolds, developer, Dataset IT Systems and Microsoft Access MVP“A book that will expertly guide you in how to develop a database for a client— and how to do it right the first time!”

—Kenneth D. Snell, Ph.D., ACCESS developer and Microsoft Access MVP “Riordan has produced a unique book that brings together a formal, yet commonsense, approach to relational database design...and then goes further! Many database designers will find immense value in the steps to developing practical data warehouse designs. If you are seeking a framework for designing transactional databases, or want to step out into the world of analytical databases, Riordan’s book excels at bridging both worlds.”

—Paul Irvine, vice president, engineering, Via Training“Riordan takes a complex subject and makes it easy. If you’re over your head on a database design project, this book will help bail you out!”

—Mike Gunderloy, contributing editor, Application Development Trends“This book covers a wide range of database design and data modeling topics in a well-organized, easy to understand format.”

—Amy Sticksel, Sticksel Data Systems, Inc.“In Designing Effective Database Systems, Riordan’s style, wit, and attention to detail are outstanding.”

—Sandra Daigle, Microsoft Access MVP The Software Developer’s Step-by-Step Guide to Database Design

World-renowned expert Rebecca M. Riordan has written the definitive database design book for working developers who aren’t database experts. No matter how messy or complex your data challenge, Designing Effective Database Systems shows you how to design an effective, high-performance database to solve it.

Riordan begins by thoroughly demystifying the principles of relational design, making them accessible to every professional developer. Next, she offers the field’s clearest introduction to dimensional database modeling—practical insight for designing today’s increasingly important analytical applications.

One task at a time, the author illuminates every facet of database analysis and design for both traditional databases and the dimensional databases used for data warehousing, showing how to avoid common architectural pitfalls that complicate development and reduce extensibility. The book concludes with comprehensive, expert guidance on designing databases for maximum usability.

This book will teach you to

  • Understand relational database models, structures, relationships, and data integrity principles
  • Define database system goals, criteria, scope, and work processes
  • Construct accurate conceptual models: relationships, entities, domain analysis, and normalization
  • Build efficient, secure database schema
  • Master the elements of online analytical processing (OLAP) design: fact tables, dimension tables, snowflaking, and more
  • Architect and construct easy, efficient interfaces for querying and reporting
  • Learn from practice examples based on Microsoft’s Northwind sample database

Riordan has helped thousands of professionals master database design and development, earning Microsoft’s coveted MVP honor for her exceptional contributions. Nobody is more qualified to help you master database design and apply it in your real-world environment.

About the Author

Rebecca M. Riordan has more than fifteen years of experience designing and developing databases and other applications. She is a Microsoft MVP and a frequent speaker at conferences, including Microsoft TechEd. She is the author of many books, including Seeing Data: Designing User Interfaces for Database Systems Using .NET (Addison-Wesley, 2005). Her other highly respected books include Designing Relational Database Systems (1999), Microsoft SQL Server 2000 Programming Step by Step (2000), and ADO.NET Step by Step (2002), all published by Microsoft Press.

Excerpt. © Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.

Relational databases are tricky beasts. Other kinds of commercial software are infinitely easier to understand. Word processors are really just high-tech typewriters, and it’s pretty clear that the backspace key beats that little jar of white stuff cold. Spreadsheets present a familiar enough paradigm, even to non-accountants, and email is close enough to the postal system for the model to be comprehensible.

Databases are different. Other kinds of software have a real-world analogy. Sometimes, as in the Windows desktop, the analogy is a little tenuous, but the analogies are close enough; you can get there from here. But relational databases are completely artificial. They’re like geometry: They can be used to build models of the real world, but they don’t exist in the real world. When was the last time you poured some wine for you and your sweetie and went out on the front porch to watch the geometry frolic on the lake?

Now, I’m talking about databases here, not tables. Tables exist aplenty, from the telephone book to the dictionary. But relational databases? Nope. Uh-uh. You’re not going to find them frolicking on the lake, either. The card files at the library, which contain author, title, and subject files, come close to being a database but they’re still separate sets of data that are only correlated by the good graces of the local librarian.

This book is about designing database systems. My intention is to give you the knowledge you need to take a messy, complex, real-world situation and turn it into an effective database design. I assume that you have some development experience and generally know your way around a computer, but I don’t assume that you have any background in databases.

After reading the book you still won’t be able to watch the databases frolic on the lake, but if I’ve done my job well you’ll be able to design and implement a relational model of the fish, the seagulls, and the effects of the plankton on them both.

The book is divided into four parts. Part I, “Relational Database Theory,” covers the fundamental principles of the relational model. This is where the really ugly, theoretical stuff is. But don’t worry; it will get easier. Part II, “Dimensional Database Theory,” covers the same information for dimensional databases, a special type of relational database used for analysis. Part III, “Designing Database Systems,” examines the analysis and design process—what you should do to get from the real world to a reliable database system design. Finally, Part IV, “Designing the User Interface,” discusses the most important aspect of a database system from a user’s point of view: the user interface.

Although we’ll talk about implementation issues in the next few hundred pages, this isn’t a “how to program” book. There are a few coding examples, but I’ve kept them to a minimum, and you should be able to follow them even if you’ve never seen a programming language before. The database examples are based on the Northwind sample database that comes with Microsoft Access. (The version of Northwind that comes with SQL Server is very similar.) By the time you’re finished reading this book, you’ll have picked up most of what you need to get started building database systems, and you’ll be ready to turn to one of the sources listed in the Bibliography for the finer points of programming style. And you’ll be confident that your data architecture is sound and unlikely to get you into trouble later in your project.

A note on English usage: As you’ll discover as you read this book, I’m a stickler for terminology. But that said, I don’t think syntax ought to draw attention to itself. If an author writes “he or she” or (heavens forefend) “s/he,” I’m busy thinking about gender politics and no longer paying attention to the text. If I read “the data are,” I’m just as likely to be thinking about the nature of the English language as whatever the author is trying to say.

Now, the pronoun issue is fairly simple to work around. You’ll find a great many repetitions of “the user” in this text. But the adoption of Latin terms into English is a more complex issue, particularly in a book about data.

For the record, I had a classical education, and I’m perfectly aware that in Latin, “data” is a plural noun, and ought to take a plural verb. I’m also aware that in the field of statistics, one still refers to a “datum,” a single data point. But this isn’t statistics, and I’m not writing in Latin. In English, we have a long history of adopting plural Latin nouns as corporate nouns, and in American English, those nouns take a singular verb. It’s what we do when we speak, and it’s what I’ve done in the text.

We say “the data is reliable” not “the data are reliable.” (I have actually heard “the datums are reliable,” but that’s just sad.) This usage has been adopted by several influential publications, and I have adopted it here. Not because I don’t know how Latin works, but because I’ve carefully considered the issue and decided to write American English as I, as a well-educated native American English speaker, speak it. Now ain’t that just about enough on the subject?




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