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by Benjamin H.hunnicutt

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Text extracted from opening pages of book: BRAZIL WORLD FRONTIER DATE DUE 9 1992 TORCHS L-16 KANSAS CITY, D DDD1 Preface Brazil is in many ways a World Frontier, not merely because of its more than a million square miles of entirely uninhabited area, but because it offers such exceptional opportunities for progress into the unknown: in science and sociology; in transportation and development of new territory; and also in health and sanitation. There is so much to be accomplished that as fast as the & quot; frontier& quot; recedes a new one arises, just beyond the horizon. Enterprising and venturesome spirits are ever driving ahead, and that is as should be. The increasing importance of Brazil in world development has been very evident in recent years. Its immense size, enormous natural re sources, strategic location and democratic people all go to determine and enhance this importance. The country suffers a number of decided handicaps in its large percentage of illiteracy, in the difficulties of transportation and in the lack of fertility of much of its territory. Agriculture and industry compete with each other for the available supply of labor. Large modern cities tend to empty rural districts far too fast, but in spite of these drawbacks, in the more than forty years that I have resided in Brazil much progress has been made and a close cooperation between the United States of America and the United States of Brazil can greatly hasten progress and offer many advantages to both countries. An optimistic view point has been taken of the country as a whole, but every effort has been made not to exaggerate for or against, and as far as possible the information given is accurate. UN l* U.) PUBLIC Acknowledgments My sincere gratitude to the Brazilian Government for its generous cooperation in the preparation of this book is hereby expressed. With out the help o the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics this book could not have been written. I should mention especially Am bassador Jos Carlos de Macedo Soares, M. A. Teixeira de Freitas, Germano Jardim and Waldemar Lopes. Much work was done in the preparation of the manuscript by Miss Clarissa Rolfs which is hereby gratefully acknowledged. A great many friends, too numerous to be mentioned, cooperated in one way or another. To all of them I extend my sincere thanks. Contents CHAPTER PAGE PART I THE PEOPLE AND THE LAND I. Brazilians 3 II. A Challenge to the Frontiersman 13 III. Geographically Speaking 24 IV. The Greatest River in the World 38 V. Rio de Janeiro: The Marvelous City 47 VI. Sao Paulo: Dynamic City 58 PART II BRAZILIAN AGRICULTURE VII. Farming Under the Southern Cross 73 VIII. Corn, the Most Widely Grown Crop in Brazil 82 IX. Sugar Cane 89 X. Rubber 96 XL The World s Coffee Cup 106 XII. Cotton 118 XIII. The Little C s and Other Crops 129 XIV. Oranges and Bananas 152 XV. Other Fruits 162 XVI. Nuts of Brazil 172 XVII. Green Oceans 183 XVIII. On a Thousand Hillsides 195 PART III MINERAL AND WATER RESOURCES XIX. Economic Evolution 209 XX. Precious Metals and Stones 214 XXL Other Mineral Wealth 223 XXII. White Coal 233 VI CHAPTER Contents PAGE PART IV INDUSTRY AND COMMERCE XXIII. Industrial Development 243 XXIV. & quot; Made in Brazil& quot; 253 XXV. International Trade 266 XXVI. Travel Facilities 276 XXVII. Via Aerea 288 PART V EDUCATION AND CULTURE XXVIII. Science at Work 301 XXIX. The Educational Problem 313 XXX. The Educational Effort 322 XXXI. Cultural Relations 332 PART VI FOUR CENTURIES OF PROGRESS XXXII. Four and a Half Centuries 347 XXXIII. Brazil s War Effort 354 XXXIV. Constitution, Fifth Edition 360 XXXV. Government and Politics 369 Index 377 Foreword To write about a country, especially when it is not one s own country, is one of the most difficult spheres of literary effort, Our generation, however, has been characterized by a voluminous output of this kind of writing which has been, for the most part, hasty and superficial. It has been more a writing bus



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