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Color And Its Applications

by Luckiesh

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Text extracted from opening pages of book: AND ITS APPLICATIONS BY M. LUCKffiSH DIRECTOR OF APPLIED SCIENCE, NELA RESEARCH LABORATORIES NATIONAL LAMP WORKS OF GENERAL ELECTRIC CO. AUTHOR OF LIGHT AND SHADE AND THEIR APPLICATIONS, THE LIGHTING ART, THE LANGUAGE OF COLOR, ARTIFICIAL LIGHT, ITS INFLUENCE UPON CIVILIZATION, LIGHTING THE HOME, ETC. 150 Illustrations 4 Color Plates 34 Tables SECOND EDITION ENLARGED NEW YORK D. VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY EIGHT WARREN STREET 1921 PREFACE The aim of this book is to present a condensed treatment of the science of color. An attempt has been made to cover as many phases of the subject as possible within the confines of a small volume. During several years of experimental work in the science of color I have been brought into contact with many persons interested in its applications, and the desire has been frequently expressed for a book that treated the science of color as far as possible from the viewpoint of those interested in the many applica tions of color. These applications are constantly in creasing in scope and interest. With this viewpoint in mind I have attempted to treat the subject, exercis ing my judgment in drawing freely from the work of other investigators in order to make the volume as comprehensive as possible. I do not feel that the work comprises a complete treatment, for there are many interesting phases of color science that have been barely touched upon, and some that have been purposely omitted, because of the danger of straying too far afield. It is believed, however, that this treatise will be helpful to those interested in any of the arts involving the science of color. I have referred to my own investigations quite freely, but trust that this will not be attributed to a lack of per spective. Naturally much of the text involves my own conclusions, but I have aimed to include only those that are supported by experimental data, be cause only in so far as they are thus supported does iii iv PREFACE the work become authoritative. Many unsolved prob lems have arisen throughout the text, which em phasizes the need for more workers in the field. No attempt has been made to present a complete bib liography of even the recent work in this branch of science; but references have been given freely, which, if followed, will provide a substantial beginning to the almost endless chain of material available. It is a pleasant duty to record my acknowledg ments to the management of the National Lamp WtfrlEs of the General Electric Company, whose broad minded spirit in establishing the Nela Research Laboratory has made this work possible, and to the director of the laboratory and members of the staff, who always have given freely of their time and counsel. SECOND EDITION Some changes have been made in the original text and an extensive chapter has been added. This con sists of useful data and methods for their use. M. LTJCKIESH September, 1920 CONTENTS CHAPTER I Pa LIGHT : 1 Wave Theory. Electro-magnetic Theory. Radiation and Light ensa tion. Temperature and Radiation. Spectra of Uluminants. - v -^^ CHAPTER II THE PRODUCTION OF COLOR 23 Refraction. Diffraction. Interference. Polarization. Reflection, Ab sorption, and Transmission. Color of Daylight. Color Sensations Produced by Colorless Stimuli. Fluorescence and Phosphorescence. Useful Filters. CHAPTER III . COLOR-MIXTURE 54 Subtractive Method. Additive Method. Juxtapositional Method. Simple Apparatus for Mixing Colors. CHAPTER IV COLOR TERMINOLOGY 69 Hue, Saturation, and Brightness. Tri-color Method. Color Notation. CHAPTER V THE ANALYSIS OF COLOR 86 The Spectroscope. The Spectrophotometer. The Monochromatic Colorimeter. The Tri-chromatic Colorimeter. Other Methods. Templates. Reflectometer. Methods of Altering Brightness Non selectively. CHAPTER VI COLOR AND VISION 116 The Eye. Brightness Sensibility. Hue Sensibility. Saturation Sensi bility. Visual Acuity in Lights of Different Colors. Growth and Decay of Color Sensations. Signaling



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